January 2, 2019

The code hero is associated with Earnest Hemingway’s novels. Professor Paul Totah maintains that Hemingway defined the code hero as “a man who lives correctly, following the ideals of honor, courage and endurance in world that is sometimes chaotic, often stressful, and always painful.” Again, Phillip Young considers the code hero as an individual who “offers up and exemplify certain principles of honour and courage which, in a life of tension and pain, make a man a man and distinguish him from the people who follow random impulses [...] and are [...] perhaps cowardly, and without inviolable rules for how to live holding tight.”

The Code Hero

The concept of the code hero heavily stemmed from the post-World War I disillusionment. The code hero generally adheres to some specific individualistic code or behaviour that significantly controls his decisions and conduct. Such hero has a recurrent presence in Hemingway’s novels. Some of Hemingway’s most memorable code heroes include: Frederick Henry of A Farewell to Arms, Jake Barnes of The Sun Also Rises, Robert Jordan of For Whom the Bell Tolls, and Santiago of The Old Man and the Sea.

The term “Code Hero” was coined by the scholar Phillip Young (1966). Some other terms for defining Hemingway’s heroes include the “Hemingway Code Hero”, and the “Hemingway Man”. But regardless of dissimilar names all of Hemingway’s protagonists display the same characteristics:
  • The code hero is courageous and honorable.
  • He is righteous and will not comply with evil.
  • He is essentially individualistic and free willed.
  • The code hero is adventurous and has a predilection for travelling.
  • He neither shows emotions nor does he give any commitment to women or social convention lest he becomes weak.
  • The role of the code hero is always played by a man.
  • He is generally a wounded man, not only physically but also psychologically.
  • He is a man of action and never boasts his achievements.
  • He does not judge others since he views men objectively.
  • He strives hard to break away from the customs of the conventional society, thereby alienating himself from the world.
  • He suffers from sleeplessness due to being tormented by his thoughts and ruminations.
  • He believes that life is enjoyable and it denotes everything while death is nothing (nada) and thus life after death is nonexistent.
  • Death frightens him since it is the end of everything and thus he tries his utmost to avoid death at any cost.
  • Night is a difficult time for the code hero because it implies to utter darkness which ultimately reminds him of death. Therefore, most code heroes are either afraid of the dark or avoid night by drinking, partying, or staying awake.
  • Although he fights hard in this violent and desolate world to live properly, he is rarely the winner.
  • The code hero catches many women’s attention and he sees them nothing but objects of lust and gratification.

December 3, 2018

JEAN PIAGET (1896 –1980), A TWENTIETH CENTURY SWISS DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST.


 “For some writers mental phenomena become intelligible only when related to the organism. This view is of course inescapable when we study the elementary functions (perception, motor functions, etc.) in which intelligence originates. But we can hardly see neurology explaining why 2 and 2 make 4, or why the laws of deduction are forced on the mind of necessity.” ~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence


“Every response, whether it be an act directed towards the outside world or an act internalized as thought, takes the form of an adaptation or, better, of a re-adaptation.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

“Formal logic, or logistics, is simply the axiomatics of states of equilibrium of thought, and the positive science corresponding to this axiomatics is none other than the psychology of thought.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

“The individual acts only if he experiences a need, i.e., if the equilibrium between the environment and the organism is momentarily upset, and action tends to re-establish the equilibrium, i.e., to re-adapt the organism (Claparède).”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

“Children should be able to do their own experimenting and their own research. Teachers, of course, can guide them by providing appropriate materials, but the essential thing is that in order for a child to understand something, he must construct it himself, he must re-invent it. Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand that which we allow him to discover by himself will remain with him visibly for the rest of his life.”
~ Jean Piaget, Play and Development: A Symposium

“I know some very intelligent philosophers, not at all dogmatic, who believe that “science” cannot introduce the concept of finality in the analysis and explanation of vital processes, but that “philosophy” equally cannot arrive at an adequate concept of organic life without introducing finality. It is not a question here of moral or other values, but rather of a concept peculiar to philosophical biology as opposed to biology. Indeed, one such philosopher concluded, drawing inspiration from Merleau-Ponty, that science can “never” give an adequate explanation of the concept of the “whole structure” of the organism.”
~ Jean Piaget, Insights and Illusions of Philosophy

“A response is thus a particular case of interaction between the external world and the subject, but unlike physiological interactions, which are of a material nature and involve an internal change in the bodies which are present, the responses studied by psychology are of a functional nature and are achieved at greater and greater distances in space (perception, etc.) and in time (memory, etc.) besides following more and more complex paths (reversals, detours, etc.).”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

“According to Claparède, feelings appoint a goal for behaviour, while intelligence merely provides the means (the "technique"). But there exists an awareness of ends as well as of means, and this continually modifies the goals of action.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

“… to avoid the difficulties of teleological language, adaptation must be described as an equilibrium between the action of the organism on the environment and vice versa.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

“… intelligence, the most plastic and at the same time the most durable structural equilibrium of behaviour, is essentially a system of living and acting operations.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “Every structure is to be thought of as a particular form of equilibrium, more or less stable within its restricted field and losing its stability on reaching the limits of the field.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “We shall simply say then that every action involves an energetic or affective aspect and a structural or cognitive aspect, which, in fact, unites the different points of view already mentioned.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “A fact is first an answer to a question. If Sartre had consulted psychologists before judging them in the light of his own genius, he would have learned that they do not wait on the accident but begin by setting themselves problems.”
~ Jean Piaget, Insights and Illusions of Philosophy

 “… theory or have remained unaffected by them. It is true that a fact can sometimes appear to resemble an “accident,” as in the case of the apple that fell near Newton, but the accident only became a “fact” because Newton asked certain questions.”
~ Jean Piaget, Insights and Illusions of Philosophy

“Thus arises the solution proposed by the so-called Gestalt psychology: behaviour involves a "total field" embracing subject and objects, and the dynamics of this field constitutes feeling (Lewin), while its structure depends on perception, effector-functions, and intelligence.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “We shall adopt an analogous formula, with the reservation that feelings and cognitive configurations do not depend solely on the existing "field," but also on the whole previous history of the acting subject.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “But if all behaviour, without exception, thus implies an energetics or an "economy", forming its affective aspect, the interaction with the environment which it instigates likewise requires a form or structure to determine the various possible circuits between subject and object.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “But these structures, forming different levels, are to be regarded as succeeding one another according to a law of development, such that each one brings about a more inclusive and stable equilibrium for the processes that emerge from the preceding level.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “According to Claparède, feelings appoint a goal for behaviour, while intelligence merely provides the means (the "technique"). But there exists an awareness of ends as well as of means, and this continually modifies the goals of action. In so far as feeling directs behaviour by attributing a value to its ends, we must confine ourselves to saying that it supplies the energy necessary for action, while knowledge impresses a structure on it. Thus arises the solution proposed by the so-called Gestalt psychology: behaviour involves a "total field" embracing subject and objects, and the dynamics of this field constitutes feeling (Lewin), while its structure depends on perception, effector-functions, and intelligence.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “This new philosophical psychology can in this respect be traced back to Maine de Biran, for even if in his time scientific psychology was unaware of its autonomy, and even if Biranian psychology was only critical of that of the empiricists, Biran believed in the Kantian distinction of noumena and phenomena and took care to limit his inquiry to the latter alone, which did not prevent him from extending it in the form of idealist speculations.”
~ Jean Piaget, Insights and Illusions of Philosophy

 “Every psychological explanation comes sooner or later to lean either on biology or on logic (or on sociology, but this in turn leads to the same alternatives).”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

 “For some writers mental phenomena become intelligible only when related to the organism. This view is of course inescapable when we study the elementary functions (perception, motor functions, etc.) in which intelligence originates. But we can hardly see neurology explaining why 2 and 2 make 4, or why the laws of deduction are forced on the mind of necessity.”
~ Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence

November 28, 2018

Charles F. Hockett was an American linguist, anthropologist, and composer of the post-World War II era. Hockett was the last of the most influential advocates of the structural linguistics, which flourished particularly in the four decades from the 1930s to the 1960s.


Charles F. Hockett Quick Facts

Profile

  • Name: Charles F. Hockett
  • Birth Name: Charles Francis Hockett
  • AKA: Chas
  • Date of Birth: January 17, 1916
  • Place of Birth: Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Date of Death: November 3, 2000
  • Place of Death: Cayuga Medical Center, Ithaca, NY, United States
  • Cause of Death: NA
  • Interred at: NA
  • Zodiac Sign: Capricorn
  • Nationality: American
  • Ethnicity: White
  • Religion: NA
  • Father: Homer Carey Hockett (1875-1960)
  • Mother: Amy Francisco (1875-1949)
  • Spouse: Shirley Orlinoff (b. 1920 d. 2013 m. 1942 to until his death)
  • Children:
  1. Daughter- Alpha Hockett Walker 
  2. Daughter-  Amy Robin Rose
  3. Daughter-  Rachel Hockett Youngman
  4. Daughter-  Carey Beth Hockett
  5. Son -   Asher Orlinoff Hockett
  • Grandchildren:
  1. Carly Walker
  2. Luke Walker
  3. Hannah Walker Edelman
  4. Charles Kee
  5. Annie Kee
  • Great-grandchildren:
  1. Chasden
  2. Sonja
  3. Elle
  4. Ivan
  5. Dage
  • Alma Mater: Ohio State University, Yale University
  • Charles F. Hockett is known for: his contributions to structural linguistics and linguistic anthropology
  • Charles F. Hockett is criticized for: NA
  • Charles F. Hockett was influenced by: Leonard Bloomfield
  • Charles F. Hockett influenced: NA

Quotes

“The grammar of a language is a finite system that characterizes an infinite set of (well-formed) sentences. More specifically, the grammar of a language is a well-defined system by definition not more powerful than a universal Turing machine (and, in fact, surely a great deal weaker).”  ― Charles F. Hockett, The State of the Art (1968) p. 40

Major Works

  • Progressive Exercises in Chinese Pronunciation (1951)
  • A Manual of Phonology (1955)
  • A Course in Modern Linguistics (1958)
  • The State of the Art (1968)
  • Man's Place in Nature (1973)
  • The view from language (1977)
  • Refurbishing Our Foundations: Elementary Linguistics from an Advanced Point of View (1987)

Did You Know?

  • Charles F. Hockett was the fourth child of Homer Carey Hockett and Amy Francisco Hockett.
  • His father was a lecturer in American History at Ohio State University.
  • Hockett was known as “Chas” amongst his friends, students, and colleagues.
  • In April 1942, Hockett married Shirley Orlinoff, an American professor of mathematics and writer.
  • Prior to changing her name, Shirley was known as Sonja Orlinoff.
  • He enrolled at the Ohio State University in 1932 at the age of 16, wherein he received his B.A. and M.A. in Ancient History jointly in 1936.
  • He received Ph.D. in Anthropology at Yale in 1939.
  • At Yale, Hockett studied with several other influential linguists of the time, such as Edward Sapir, George P. Murdock, and Benjamin Whorf.
  • In 1946, Hockett started his teaching career as an assistant professor of linguistics in the Division of Modern Languages at Cornell University.
  •  In 1957, Hockett became a member of Cornell University’s anthropology department and continued to teach anthropology and linguistics until he retired to emeritus status in 1982.
  • In 1986, he took up an adjunct post at Rice University in Houston, Texas, where he remained active until his death in 2000.
  • He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Science, the Society of Fellows at Harvard University.
  • Hockett served as the president of both the Linguistic Society of America and the Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States.
  • Hockett’s works were chiefly inspired by Leonard Bloomfield.
  • Hockett is most famous for defining the design features of language, which demonstrate his beliefs about the commonalities between human languages.
  • Apartment from his devotion to linguistics and anthropology, Hockett also practiced musical performance and composition.
  • He and his wife, Shirley, were early members of the Ithaca Concert Band, which closed every concert with “Stars and Stripes Forever,” featuring Hockett on the piccolo.
  • Every member in his family played an instrument and two of his children became professional musicians.
  • During later period of his life he spent much time criticizing Chomskyan linguistics, which he called ''a theory spawned by a generation of vipers.''

Media Gallery

Charles F. Hockett

Charles F. Hockett

Charles F. Hockett

Shirley Orlinoff

Shirley Orlinoff


November 1, 2018

Edward Sapir is a German-born American linguist, anthropologist, and essayist.


Edward Sapir (1884-1939) Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Edward Sapir
  • Date of Birth: January 26, 1884
  • Place of Birth: Lauenburg, Pomerania, Germany
  • Date of Death: February 4, 1939
  • Place of Death: New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, USA
  • Cause of Death: Stroke
  • Interred at: Sapir Family Cemetery, Alton, Belknap County, New Hampshire, USA
  • Zodiac Sign: Aquarius
  • Nationality: American
  • Ethnicity: White
  • Religion: Jewish
  • Father: Jacob David Sapir (1861-1931)
  • Mother: Eva Sapir née Seagal (1863-1938)
  • Siblings: Max Sapir
  • Spouse(s):
  1. Florence Delson (b. 1889 d. 1924 m. 1910 to until her death)
  2. Jean Victoria McClenaghan Sapir (b. 1899 d. 1977 m. 1926 to until his death)
  • Children (from first marriage):
  1. Son -  Herbert Michael Sapir(1913)
  2. Daughter-  Helen Ruth Larson(1914)
  3. Son - Philip Sapir
  • Children (from second marriage):
  1. Son - Paul Edward Sapir
  2. Son - J. David Sapir
  • Alma Mater: Columbia University
  • Edward Sapir is known for: Classification of Native American languages; postulation of Linguistic Relativity or Sapir–Whorf hypothesis; ethnolinguistics; development of modern concept of the phoneme.
  • Edward Sapir is criticized for: NA
  • Edward Sapir was influenced by: Franz Boas
  • Edward Sapir influenced: Morris Swadesh, Li Fanggui, Benjamin Whorf, Mary Haas, Harry Hoijer, Zellig S. Harris, G. L. Trager, and Charles F. Voegelin.

Quotes

“Were a language ever completely "grammatical" it would be a perfect engine of conceptual expression. Unfortunately, or luckily, no language is tyrannically consistent. All grammars leak.”  ― Edward Sapir, Language (1921) p. 39

Major Works

  • Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture: A Study in Method (1916)
  • Language (1921)

Did You Know?

  • Edward Sapir was born into a Lithuanian Jewish family.
  • His parents emigrated to United States in 1890 when he was only five years old.
  • In the United States his family first started living in Richmond, Virginia and then shifted to Lower East Side of New York City.
  • At the age of fourteen, Sapir won a prestigious Pulitzer scholarship in recognition of his aptitude for academics and languages.
  • After attending Columbia University from 1900-1904 on the previously attained Pulitzer scholarship, Sapir graduated in 1904 with a B.A. in linguistics.
  • In 1905, with Dr. Boas' encouragement, Sapir completed an M.A. in German.
  • Sapir spent 1907-1908 as a research associate at the University of California at Berkeley.
  • He earned his Ph.D. in anthropology in 1909, with a dissertation on the Takelma language of southwestern Oregon.
  • In 1910, he was appointed director of anthropology in the Geological Survey of the Canadian National Museum, a post he held until 1924.
  • His younger brother Max died of Typhoid.
  • Sapir’s parents divorced in 1910.
  • Before going to Canada, Sapir had a short affair with the Anthropologist Margaret Mead.
  • In 1910 Sapir espoused Florence Delson, a distant cousin, who also had Lithuanian Jewish roots.
  • Florence had long been suffered from both physical and mental illness and she died in 1924.
  • After Florence’s death Sapir started to raise his three children alone. However, eventually, his mother aided him in raising the children.
  • He opted to write poetry, compose music, and study psychology to overcome depression ensued from his wife’s demise.
  • In 1925 Sapir accepted the invitation to join the department of anthropology at the University of Chicago.
  • In 1926 he was married again, to Jean McClenaghan who was sixteen years younger than Sapir.
  • From the second marriage Sapir had two children.
  • In 1931, he accepted an offer to become Sterling Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics at Yale University.
  • His son, J. David Sapir, is a linguist, anthropologist specializing in West African Languages, especially Jola languages. He is Emeritus professor of Anthropology at the University of Virginia. Besides, he is also a photographer.
  • Edward Sapir died at the age of fifty five of stroke.

Media Gallery

Edward Sapir (1884-1939)

Edward Sapir (1884-1939)

Edward Sapir (1884-1939)


October 22, 2018

Leonard Bloomfield is a 20th century American linguist and professor of Germanic languages.


Leonard Bloomfield Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Leonard Bloomfield
  • Date of Birth: April 1, 1887
  • Place of Birth: Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • Date of Death: April 18, 1949
  • Place of Death: New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  • Cause of Death: Illness caused by a stroke
  • Zodiac Sign: Aries
  • Nationality: American
  • Ethnicity: Jewish-Germanic
  • Father: Sigmund Bloomfield
  • Mother: Carola Buber Bloomfield
  • Spouse: Alice Sayers
  • Alma Mater: Harvard College, University of Wisconsin, University of Chicago, University of Leipzig, and University of Göttingen
  • Leonard Bloomfield is known for: scientific systemization of linguistic study and presentation of rigorous model for linguistic description.
  • Leonard Bloomfield is criticized for: his dismissal of serious study of meaning in linguistics.
  • Leonard Bloomfield was influenced by: Eduard Prokosch, August Leskien, Karl Brugmann, Hermann Oldenberg, and John B. Watson
  • Leonard Bloomfield influenced: Charles Hockett, and Zellig Harris

Quotes

“The totality of utterances that can be made in a speech community is the language of that speech community.” ― Leonard Bloomfield, An introduction to the study of language

Major Works

  • Introduction to the Study of Language (1914)
  • Tagalog Texts with Gramatical Analysis (1917)
  • Menomini Texts (1928)
  • Sacred stories of the Sweet Grass Cree (1930)
  • Language (1933)
  • The Stressed Vowels of American English (1935)
  • Linguistic Aspects of Science (1939)

Did You Know?

  • Bloomfield was born in a Jewish-Germanic family.
  • When he was nine his family moved to the village of Elk-hart Lake, Wisconsin.
  • In Wisconsin his father was the proprietor of a hotel.
  • His uncle, Maurice Bloomfield, was professor of comparative philology and Sanskrit at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.
  • Bloomfield studied at local school in the village of Elk-hart Lake, where he failed to get promotion to the next grade due to opposing the existing teaching method.
  • After passing high-school entrance examination with the help of his mother’s tuition he returned to Chicago to attend the North Division School for his secondary studies.
  • In 1903 he attended Harvard College and graduated three years later.
  • He completed his post-graduate studies at University of Wisconsin (1906-1908) and University of Chicago (1908-1909) and obtained the doctorate degree in 1909.
  • At University of Wisconsin he met Eduard Prokosch who inspired him to be a linguist.
  • In 1909 he started as Assistant professor of German at University of Cincinnati.
  • In 1910, he joined as an associate professor of German and comparative philology at University of Illinois.
  • In 1921 Bloomfield worked as Professor at Ohio State University.
  • In 1927 Bloomfield moved to University of Chicago, where he worked as a professor of German Philology till 1940.
  • He became president of the LSA in 1935.
  • In 1940 he became Edward Sapir’s successor at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, as the Sterling Professor of Linguistics.
  • In 1914 he published his first book entitled Introduction to the Study of Language which was published by the Publisher Henry Holt in New York.
  • His 1933 book Language paved the way for creating the field of linguistics as a branch of science.
  • Bloomfield was one of the main figures behind the American structural approach to linguistics.
  • Bloomfield thought of language in strict scientific terms rather than in any philosophical way.
  • Although Bloomfield’s earlier works reflects his interest in the psychological theories of Wilhelm Wundt, his later philosophical position was less dogmatic, and he showed much interest in behaviourism as posited by A.P. Weiss.
  • Many critics consider him as anti-mentalist. 
  • The influence of Bloomfieldian structural linguistics declined in the late 1950s and 1960s after development of generative grammar by Noam Chomsky.
  • Much of his works were published posthumously.
  • Leonard Bloomfield died at the age of 62, after suffering nearly three years of a paralyzing stroke.

October 10, 2018

Eric Lenneberg (1921 –1975) was a 20th century linguist, neurologist, and educator.

Eric Lenneberg Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Eric Heinz Lenneberg
  • Date of Birth: September 19, 1921
  • Place of Birth: Düsseldorf, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
  • Date of Death: May 31, 1975
  • Place of Death: White Plains, Westchester, New York, USA
  • Cause of Death: Unknown
  • Interred at: Unknown
  • Zodiac Sign: Virgo
  • Nationality: NA
  • Ethnicity: Jewish
  • Father: NA
  • Mother: NA
  • Siblings:  Helmut Lenneberg
  • Spouse(s):
  1. Edith Maria Lenneberg née Salomon (1923-2005)
  2. Elizabeth Lenneberg née Smith(1933–2007)
  • Children:
  1. Daughter-  Miriam Lenneberg
  2. Son-  Roger Lenneberg
  • Alma Mater: University of Chicago, Harvard University
  • Eric Lenneberg is known for: pioneering the biological approach to the study of human language.
  • Eric Lenneberg is criticized for: not being able to put forward substantial proof against his claim regarding start of lateralization.
  • Eric Lenneberg was influenced by: NA
  • Eric Lenneberg influenced: Noam Chomsky, Steven Pinker
  • Awards: Guggenheim Fellowship for Social Sciences, US & Canada

Quotes

“The central nervous system and other tissues in the body develop simultaneously and influence one another continuously during morphogenesis.”  ― Eric Lenneberg, Biological Foundations of Language (1967) p. 28
“Animals develop as an integrated whole including structure, function and behavioral capacities.” ― Eric Lenneberg, Biological Foundations of Language (1967) p. 240
“All animals have the ability to group together stimulus configurations which may be physically totally different from each other; however, the animal makes an identical response to certain ones and thus treats them as if they were similar in some respect; we cannot escape the conclusion that for the animal, some similarity exists among such stimuli.” ― Eric Lenneberg, Biological Foundations of Language (1967) p. 298

Major Works

  • The language of experience (1956)
  • New directions in the study of language (1964)
  • Biological Foundations of Language (1967)

Did You Know?

  • At the age of twelve Eric Lenneberg left Germany with his parents to live in Brazil.
  • He came to the United States in 1945 and served in the Army for one year.
  • Lenneberg married twice.
  • He pioneered the notion that human capacity for language could be explained only on the basis of the biological properties of the brain and vocal tract.
  • He received B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Chicago.
  • Lenneberg obtained his Ph.D. from Harvard University in psychology and linguistics in 1956.
  • He attended Harvard Medical School to study neuroscience.
  • After earning his Ph.D. he held faculty posts at Harvard University.
  • From 1964-1965 Lenneberg was a visiting professor of psychology at the University of Zurich.
  • From 1967–1968 he was a professor of psychology at the University of Michigan.
  • In the fall of 1968 became professor of psychology and neurobiology at Cornell University and Medical School.
  • He was a visiting professor at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.
  • He was an invited lecturer at the Academia Nacional de Neurologia do Brasil.
  • He conducted research at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Boston for locating children with extraordinary language disabilities or living in unusual circumstances to elaborate his theory of language development.
  • With his wife, Elizabeth, he edited a book for UNESCO entitled Foundations of Language Development: A Multidisciplinary Approach.
  • His experiments and views were encapsulated in his 1967 book, Biological Foundations of Language.
  • His Biological Foundations of Language reflected his interest and expertise in both language and psychobiology.
  • His ideas were subsequently adopted by Noam Chomsky and popularized by Steven Pinker in his book, The Language Instinct.
  • Lenneberg died prematurely at the age of 53.
  • Before his demise Lenneberg had been working at Cornell University as the professor of psychology and neurobiology.
  • He died in White Plains, where he had been working on a, clinical research project in neuropsychology at the WestChester Division of New York hospital‐Cornell Medical Center.

Media Gallery

Eric Lenneberg

Eric Lenneberg

Eric Lenneberg


October 6, 2018

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a 20th century Swiss biologist, philosopher, psychologist, and educator.


Jean Piaget Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Jean William Piaget
  • AKA: Jean William Fritz Piaget
  • Date of Birth: August 9, 1896
  • Place of Birth: Neuchatel, Neuchâtel, Canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • Date of Death: September 16, 1980
  • Place of Death: Geneva, Switzerland
  • Cause of Death: Unknown
  • Interred at: Cimetière des Rois (Cemetery of Kings)
  • Zodiac Sign: Leo
  • Nationality: Swiss
  • Father: Arthur Piaget
  • Mother: Rebecca Jackson
  • Siblings: Madeleine Vautheir
  • Spouse: Valentine Piaget née Châtenay
  • Children:
  1. Daughter-Jacqueline Piaget
  2. Daughter - Lucienne Piaget
  3. Son- Laurent Piaget
  • Alma Mater: University of Neuchâtel (1918), University of Zurich, University of Geneva
  • Jean Piaget is known for: Constructivism, Genevan School, genetic epistemology, theory of cognitive development, object permanence, and egocentrism.
  • Jean Piaget is criticized for: not considering sociocultural or geographical differences among children.
  • Jean Piaget was influenced by: Immanuel Kant, Henri Bergson, Pierre Janet, Alfred Binet, Théodore Simon, Sabina Spielrein, and James Mark Baldwin.
  • Jean Piaget influenced: Rabbi ShlomoWolbe, BärbelInhelder, Jerome Bruner, Kenneth Kaye, Lawrence Kohlberg, Robert Kegan, Howard Gardner, Thomas Kuhn, Seymour Papert, Lev Vygotsky, Jordan Peterson, and John Flavell.

Quotes

“I know some very intelligent philosophers, not at all dogmatic, who believe that “science” cannot introduce the concept of finality in the analysis and explanation of vital processes, but that “philosophy” equally cannot arrive at an adequate concept of organic life without introducing finality. It is not a question here of moral or other values, but rather of a concept peculiar to philosophical biology as opposed to biology. Indeed, one such philosopher concluded, drawing inspiration from Merleau-Ponty, that science can “never” give an adequate explanation of the concept of the “whole structure” of the organism.” ― Jean Piaget, Insights and Illusions of Philosophy

Major Works

  • The Language and Thought of the Child (1923)
  • The Child's Conception of the World (1926)
  • Child's Conception of Physical Causality (1927)
  • Judgment and Reasoning in the Child (1928)
  • The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932)
  • The Origins of Intelligence in Children (1936)
  • The construction of Reality in the Child (1937)
  • The Child's Conception of Number (1941)
  • Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood (1945)
  • The psychology of intelligence (1947)
  • Logic and Psychology (1953)
  • The Child's Conception of Space (1956)
  • Six psychological Studies (1964)
  • Insights and Illusions of Philosophy (1965)
  • Sociological Studies (1965)
  • The Psychology of the Child (1966)
  • Mental imagery in the child: a Study of the Development of Imaginal Representation (1966)
  • Biology and Knowledge: An Essay on the Relations Between Organic Regulations and Cognitive Processes (1967)
  • Memory and intelligence (1968)
  • Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child (1969)
  • The Child's Conception of Time (1969)
  • Genetic Epistemology (1970)
  • Psychology and Epistemology: Towards a Theory of Knowledge (1971)
  • OuVaL'education (1972)
  • Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development (1975)
  • The Essential Piaget (1977)
  • The Child and Reality: Problems of Genetic Psychology (1973)
  • To understand is to invent: The Future of Education (1973)
  • Success and Understanding (1974)
  • Understanding Causality (1974)
  • The Origin of the Idea of Chance in Children (1975)
  • Behaviour and Evolution (1976)
  • Language and Learning: The Debate Between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (1979)
  • Adaptation and Intelligence: Organic Selection and Phenocopy (1980)
  • Psychogenesis and the History of Science (1982)

Did You Know?

  • He was the eldest son born to Arthur Piaget and Rebecca Jackson.
  • His father was a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel.
  • Much of Piaget's childhood was influenced by his father, who was profoundly dedicated to his studies and work.
  • He made his first publication at the age of 10 and continued working until his death at the age of 84.
  • At the University of Neuchâtel, he finished natural science studies in 1916 and earned a doctoral degree for research on mollusks in 1918.
  • Piaget is famous for his learning theories based on different stages in the development of children's intelligence, which are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational.
  • Piaget’s theories on child development are collectively called "genetic epistemology."
  • Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 and directed it until his death in 1980.
  • His work with children and focus on child development lead to many of the early education reform movements.
  • From 1925 to 1929 Piaget was professor of psychology, sociology, and the philosophy of science at the University of Neuchâtel.
  • Piaget made many impressive guest appearances at conferences concerning childhood development and learning.
  • He authored more than 50 books and hundreds of papers.
  • Piaget was the recipient of honorary degrees from Oxford and Harvard universities.
  • He is the recipient of many the prestigious accolades, such as Erasmus (1972) and Balzan (1978) prizes.
  • He died in Geneva and to be concurrent with his request he was buried with his family in an unmarked grave in the Cimetière des Rois.

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Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

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