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Saturday, February 25, 2017

Lingua Franca


Lingua Franca is an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, which is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another. Holmes (1997:86) writes that ‘the term lingua franca describes a language serving as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual speech community’.

Features of Lingua Franca

  • A lingua franca is a used for communication between two or more groups that have different native languages.
  • Any given language normally becomes a lingua franca primarily by being used for international commerce, but can be accepted in other cultural exchanges, especially diplomacy.
  • Any language could conceivably serve as a lingua franca between two groups, no matter what sort of language it is.
  • Lingua Franca is a purely functionally-defined term, that is, linguistic structure of the language involved plays no role.
  • A lingua franca may also be a pidgin, like Melanesian Pidgin, widely used in the southern Pacific.
  • It may be used either intranationally (within one nation), e.g. English in India or Nigeria; or internationally, e.g. English between Germans and Japanese.

Examples of Lingua Franca

Examples are the several varieties of the hybrid pidgin English; Swahili, a native language of Eastern Africa; Chinook jargon, a lingua franca formerly used in the American Northwest that was a mixture of Chinook, other Native American languages, English, and French; and a variety of Malay (called bazaar Malay), which served as a compromise language in the area of British Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, and neighboring regions. Some people say that English is the lingua franca of the Information Age.

The original lingua franca was a tongue actually called Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that was employed for commerce in the Mediterranean area during the Middle Ages. Now extinct, it had Italian as its base with an admixture of words from Spanish, French, Greek, and Arabic. The designation “Lingua Franca” (language of the Franks) came about because the Arabs in the medieval period used to refer to Western Europeans in general as “Franks.” Occasionally the term lingua franca is applied to a fully established formal language; thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy.


“Lingua franca.” Wikipedia. 2008. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 12 August 2008
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Friday, February 24, 2017

Different Forms of Plagiarism


Plagiarism is the act of presenting someone else’s creative work without due acknowledgement. Plagiarism could be committed either intentionally or unintentionally. Regardless of how it occurs, plagiarism is a serious offence and is devoid of ethics.


The term plagiarism was first used in the early 17th century. It derives from the Latin plagiarius, meaning “kidnapper” or “abductor” from plagium, meaning “kidnapping”, which comes from the Greek plagios, meaning “one who acts indirectly.” Although originally it was used to mean someone who steals someone else's child, gradually came to mean to pass off someone else's work as one’s own. The derivatives of plagiarism include:
  • plagiary noun
  • plagiarist noun
  • plagiarize verb
  • plagiaristic adjective

Forms/Characteristics/Types of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a very ambiguous term and it is not possible to draw its exact boundary. However, in general sense its characteristics may include but not limited to the following:
  1. Misusing another person’s work: This is an intentional form of plagiarism. Usually students/writers commit this type of plagiarism in the following cases:
  • Submitting a paper, examination, or assignment written by another person.
  • Copying portions of another's writing without enclosing the copied passage in quotation marks & acknowledging the source in a list of work cited.
  • The use of a unique term or concept that one has come across without acknowledging its source.
  • The paraphrasing or restating of someone else's ideas without acknowledging that person.
  • Internet accessed sources and materials that are not properly attributed to the source or creator.
  • Purchasing an essay or paper from a "dealer" on the Internet, a frat house, sorority library or anywhere else and calling it as an individual work.
  • Borrowing another student's paper from a previous semester and calling it own work.
  • Having someone else do the work, for free or for hire.
  • Collectively researching and writing a paper with other students and each turning copies into different class sections claiming it as individual work.
  1. Misusing resources: This is an unintentional form of plagiarism. Usually this type of plagiarism occurs when the students/writers commit the following mistakes:
  • Improperly documenting quoted, paraphrased or summarized source material.
  • Falsely citing something that was never actually consulted, or making up a citation.
  • Failure to establish and maintain sustained open communications with the individual who is responsible for approving and evaluating the submission.
  • Citing some resources in the Works Cited (bibliography) list but intentionally omitting them in parenthetical citations.

How to Avoid plagiarism

In most cases, plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing the audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. The most practical way to this is to use parenthetical documentation. For example:
  1. Yoga is an ancient health-art developed and perfected over the centuries by the sages and saints of ancient India (Dunne 9).
  2. Desmond Dunne writes that Yoga is an ancient health-art developed and perfected over the centuries by the sages and saints of ancient India (9).
The parenthetical references “(Dunne 9)” and “(9)” suggest that the segment comes from the preface of a work by Dunne occurring in page 9. By the author’s last name, the readers will be able to find the complete information for the source from the Works Cited (Bibliography) list:

Works Cited
Dunne, Desmond. Preface. Yoga Made Essay. By Dunne. London: Granada, 1971. 9-11.


Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New Delhi: Affiliated E-W P, n.d.

“Plagiarism”. KidsHealth. 2008. Nemours. 4 August 2008

“Plagiarism in essays”. Mantex. 2008. Mantex. 4 August 2008


Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Quotations by Edgar Allan Poe


“The boundaries which divide Life from Death are at best shadowy and vague. Who shall say where the one ends, and where the other begins?”

“The boundaries which divide Life from Death are at best shadowy and vague. Who shall say where the one ends, and where the other begins?”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Premature Burial

  “Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Works of Edgar Allan Poe (1871)

“The true genius shudders at incompleteness — imperfection — and usually prefers silence to saying the something which is not everything that should be said.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Marginalia

“Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there, wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven

“There are chords in the hearts of the most reckless which cannot be touched without emotion.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Masque of the Red Death

“But as, in ethics, evil is a consequence of good, so, in fact, out of joy is sorrow born. Either the memory of past bliss is the anguish of today, or the agonies which are have their origin in the ecstasies which might have been.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Berenice

“In our endeavors to recall to memory something long forgotten, we often find ourselves upon the very verge of remembrance, without being able, in the end, to remember.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Ligeia

“Deep in earth my love is lying
And I must weep alone.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Deep in Earth (1847)

“All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, A Dream Within a Dream

“To die laughing must be the most glorious of all glorious deaths!”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Assignation (1834)

“Those who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Eleonora

“It is by no means an irrational fancy that, in a future existence, we shall look upon what we think our present existence, as a dream.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Marginalia

“I have no faith in human perfectibility. I think that human exertion will have no appreciable effect upon humanity. Man is now only more active - not more happy - nor more wise, than he was 6000 years ago.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Edgar Allan Poe to James Russell Lowell — July 2, 1844

“There are some secrets which do not permit themselves to be told.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Man of the Crowd (1850)

“We gave the Future to the winds, and slumbered tranquilly in the Present, weaving the dull world around us into dreams.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Mystery of Marie Rogêt

“True, nervous, very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am, but why will say that I am mad?! The disease had sharpened my senses, not destroyed, not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart and Other Writings

“The fury of a demon instantly possessed me. I knew myself no longer. My original soul seemed, at once, to take its flight from my body; and a more than fiendish malevolence, gin-nurtured, thrilled every fibre of my frame.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Black Cat

“Even with the utterly lost, to whom life and death are equally jests, there are matters of which no jest can be made.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Masque of the Red Death

“From childhood's hour I have not been
As others were - I have not seen
As others saw - I could not bring
My passions from a common spring -”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, Alone

“I call to mind flatness and dampness; and then all is madness - the madness of a memory which busies itself among forbidden things.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Pit and the Pendulum

“Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!”
Quoth the raven, “Nevermore.”
~ Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven


Sunday, February 19, 2017

Quotations by Sylvia Plath


Death must be so beautiful. To lie in the soft brown earth, with the grasses waving above one’s head, and listen to silence. To have no yesterday, and no tomorrow. To forget time, to forgive life, to be at peace.

“Death must be so beautiful. To lie in the soft brown earth, with the grasses waving above one’s head, and listen to silence. To have no yesterday, and no tomorrow. To forget time, to forgive life, to be at peace.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“Perhaps when we find ourselves wanting everything, it is because we are dangerously near to wanting nothing.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“There is so much hurt in this game of searching for a mate, of testing, trying. And you realize suddenly that you forgot it was a game, and turn away in tears.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“The silence depressed me. It wasn't the silence of silence. It was my own silence.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“If you expect nothing from somebody you are never disappointed.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“I felt very still and empty, the way the eye of a tornado must feel, moving dully along in the middle of the surrounding hullabaloo.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“I shut my eyes and all the world drops dead;
I lift my eyes and all is born again.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“I took a deep breath and listened to the old brag of my heart. I am, I am, I am.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“I can never read all the books I want; I can never be all the people I want and live all the lives I want. I can never train myself in all the skills I want. And why do I want? I want to live and feel all the shades, tones and variations of mental and physical experience possible in my life. And I am horribly limited.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“To the person in the bell jar, blank and stopped as a dead baby, the world itself is a bad dream.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“And by the way, everything in life is writable about if you have the outgoing guts to do it, and the imagination to improvise. The worst enemy to creativity is self-doubt.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“Living with him is like being told a perpetual story: his mind is the biggest, most imaginative I have ever met. I could live in its growing countries forever.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“Dying is an art.
Like everything else,
I do it exceptionally well.
I do it so it feels like hell.
I do it so it feels real.
I guess you could say I have a call.”
~ Sylvia Plath, Ariel

“I am terrified by this dark thing
That sleeps in me;
All day I feel its soft, feathery turnings, its malignity.”
~ Sylvia Plath, Ariel

“My mind is barren and I must scavenge themes as a magpie must: scraps and oddments.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“I want to taste and glory in each day, and never be afraid to experience pain; and never shut myself up in a numb core of nonfeeling, or stop questioning and criticizing life and take the easy way out. To learn and think: to think and live; to live and learn: this always, with new insight, new understanding, and new love.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“I thought the most beautiful thing in the world must be shadow, the million moving shapes and cul-de-sacs of shadow. There was shadow in bureau drawers and closets and suitcases, and shadow under houses and trees and stones, and shadow at the back of people's eyes and smiles, and shadow, miles and miles and miles of it, on the night side of the earth.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

“The blood of love welled up in my heart with a slow pain. ”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath

“With love and faith, not turning sour and cold and bitter, to help others. That is salvation. To give of love inside. To keep love of live, no matter what, and give to others. Generously.”
~ Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath


Saturday, February 18, 2017

Questions by Earnest Hemingway


“The most painful thing is losing yourself in the process of loving someone too much, and forgetting that you are special too.” ~ Ernest Hemingway, Men Without Women

“The most painful thing is losing yourself in the process of loving someone too much, and forgetting that you are special too.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, Men Without Women

“There is no lonelier man in death, except the suicide, than that man who has lived many years with a good wife and then outlived her. If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, Death in the Afternoon

“The world breaks everyone, and afterward, some are strong at the broken places.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms

“No, that is the great fallacy: the wisdom of old men. They do not grow wise. They grow careful.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms

“Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, The Garden of Eden

“But life isn't hard to manage when you've nothing to lose.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms

“Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a crime.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, Introduction to Treasury for the Free World by Ben Raeburn, 1946.

“But man is not made for defeat," he said. "A man can be destroyed but not defeated.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea

“If you have a success, you have it for the wrong reasons. If you become popular it is always because of the worst aspects of your work.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, That Summer in Paris (1963) by Morley Callaghan

“The only thing that could spoil a day was people. People were always the limiters of happiness except for the very few that were as good as spring itself.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Moveable Feast

“I know only that what is moral is what you feel good after and what is immoral is what you feel bad after.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, Death in the Afternoon

“I know the night is not the same as the day: that all things are different, that the things of the night cannot be explained in the day, because they do not then exist, and the night can be a dreadful time for lonely people once their loneliness has started.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms

“The first panacea for a mismanaged nation is inflation of the currency; the second is war. Both bring a temporary prosperity; both bring a permanent ruin. But both are the refuge of political and economic opportunists.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, Notes on the Next War

“Forget your personal tragedy. We are all bitched from the start and you especially have to be hurt like hell before you can write seriously. But when you get the damned hurt, use it-don't cheat with it.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, Letter to F Scott Fitzgerald, as quoted in Scott Fitzgerald (1962)
   by Andrew Turnbull (1962) Ch. 14

“Never to go on trips with anyone you do not love.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Moveable Feast

“An intelligent man is sometimes forced to be drunk to spend time with his fools.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, A Matter of Conscience: Redemption of a Hometown Hero, 
   Bobby Hoppe (2010) by Sherry Lee Hoppe, p. 185

“I can't stand it to think my life is going so fast and I'm not really living it.”
~ Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises


Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Quotations by Emily Dickinson


Quotations by Emily Dickinson

“Because I could not stop for Death –
He kindly stopped for me –
The Carriage held but just Ourselves –
And Immortality.”
~ Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death (479)

“I died for beauty, but was scarce   
Adjusted in the tomb,
When one who died for truth was lain
In an adjoining room.”
~ Emily Dickinson, I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce (449)

“Hope is the thing with feathers
That perches in the soul
And sings the tune without the words
And never stops at all.”
~ Emily Dickinson, “Hope” is the thing with feathers (314)

“A power of Butterfly must be –
The Aptitude to fly
Meadows of Majesty concedes
And easy Sweeps of Sky –”
~ Emily Dickinson, My Cocoon tightens — Colors teaze (1099)

“Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed.
To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need.”
~ Emily Dickinson, Success is counted sweetest (112)

“I wonder if it hurts to live –
And if They have to try –
And whether – could They choose between –
It would not be – to die –”
~ Emily Dickinson, I measure every Grief I meet (561)

“My life closed twice before its close–
It yet remains to see
If Immortality unveil
A third event to me

So huge, so hopeless to conceive
As these that twice befell.
Parting is all we know of heaven,
And all we need of hell.”
~ Emily Dickinson, My life closed twice before its close (96)

“We never know how high we are
 Till we are called to rise;
And then, if we are true to plan,
Our statures touch the skies–”
~ Emily Dickinson, We never know how high we are (1176)

“That I shall love alway–
I argue thee
That love is life–
And life hath Immortality–”
~ Emily Dickinson, That I did always love

“We outgrow love, like other things
And put it in the Drawer –
Till it an Antique fashion shows–
Like Costumes Grandsires wore.”
~ Emily Dickinson, We outgrow love, like other things… (887)

“Love–is anterior to Life–
Posterior–to Death–
Initial of Creation, and
The Exponent of Earth–”
~ Emily Dickinson, Love—is anterior to Life (917)

“She died – this was the way she died.
And when her breath was done
Took up her simple wardrobe
And started for the sun –
Her little figure at the gate
The Angels must have spied,
Since I could never find her
Upon the mortal side.”
~ Emily Dickinson, She died – this was the way she died

“The Sun–just touched the Morning–
The Morning—Happy thing–
Supposed that He had come to dwell–
And Life would all be Spring!”
~ Emily Dickinson, The Sun—just touched the Morning (232)

“Mine Enemy is growing old–
I have at last Revenge–
The Palate of the Hate departs–
If any would avenge

Let him be quick –the Viand flits–
It is a faded Meat–
Anger as soon as fed is dead–
'Tis starving makes it fat–”
~ Emily Dickinson, Mine Enemy is growing old (1509)

“I felt a Cleaving in my Mind–
As if my Brain had split–
I tried to match it–Seam by Seam–
But could not make it fit.”
~ Emily Dickinson, I felt a Cleaving in my Mind (937)

“The Brain–is wider than the Sky–
For–put them side by side–
The one the other will contain
With ease–and You–beside–”
~ Emily Dickinson, The Brain—is wider than the Sky

“I like to see it lap the Miles–
And lick the Valleys up–
And stop to feed itself at Tanks–
And then - prodigious step”
~ Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles (383)


Friday, February 10, 2017

Quotations by W. H. Auden


Quotations by W. H. Auden

“Lay your sleeping head, my love,
Human on my faithless arm;
Time and fevers burn away
Individual beauty from
Thoughtful children, and the grave
Proves the child ephemeral:
But in my arms till break of day
Let the living creature lie,
Mortal, guilty, but to me
The entirely beautiful.”
~ W.H. Auden, Lullaby

“The glacier knocks in the cupboard,
The desert sighs in the bed,
And the crack in the teacup opens
A lane to the land of the dead.”
~ W.H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening

 “In the nightmare of the dark
All the dogs of Europe bark,
And the living nations wait,
Each sequestered in its hate;

Intellectual disgrace
Stares from every human face,
And the seas of pity lie
Locked and frozen in each eye.”
~ W.H. Auden, In Memory of W. B. Yeats

“There is no such thing as the State
And no one exists alone;
Hunger allows no choice
To the citizen or the police;
We must love one another or die.”
~ W.H. Auden, September 1, 1939

“The nightingales are sobbing in
The orchards of our mothers,
And hearts that we broke long ago
Have long been breaking others;
Tears are round, the sea is deep:
Roll them overboard and sleep. ”
~ W.H. Auden, Song Of The Master And Boatswain

“The sky is darkening like a stain
Something is going to fall like rain
And it won't be flowers”
~ W.H. Auden, The Two (or The Witnesses)

“The mass and majesty of this world, all
That carries weight and always weighs the same
Lay in the hands of others; they were small
And could not hope for help and no help came:
What their foes like to do was done, their shame
Was all the worst could wish; they lost their pride
And died as men before their bodies died.”
~ W.H. Auden, The Shield of Achilles

“Were all stars to disappear and die,
I should learn to look at an empty sky
And feel its total dark sublime,
Though this might take me a little time."
~ W.H. Auden, The More Loving One

“But once in a while the odd thing happens,
Once in a while the dream comes true,
And the whole pattern of life is altered,
Once in a while the moon turns blue.”
~ W.H. Auden, Once In A While The Odd Thing Happens

“Clear, unscalable, ahead
Rise the Mountains of Instead,
From whose cold, cascading streams
None may drink except in dreams.”
~ W.H. Auden, Autumn Song

“Beloved, we are always in the wrong,
Handling so clumsily our stupid lives,
Suffering too little or too long,
Too careful even in our selfish loves:
The decorative manias we obey
Die in grimaces round us every day,
Yet through their tohu-bohu comes a voice
Which utters an absurd command - Rejoice. ”
~ W.H. Auden, In Sickness and in Health

“Time will say nothing but I told you so,
Time only knows the price we have to pay;
If I could tell you I would let you know.”
~ W.H. Auden, If I Could Tell You

“For poetry makes nothing happen: it survives
In the valley of its making where executives
Would never want to tamper, flows on south
From ranches of isolation and the busy griefs,
Raw towns that we believe and die in; it survives,
A way of happening, a mouth.”
~ W.H. Auden, In Memory of W. B. Yeats

“In Breughel’s Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may
Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry,
But for him it was not an important failure; the sun shone
As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the green
Water; and the expensive delicate ship that must have seen
Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky,
had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.”
~ W.H. Auden, Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts

“Base words are uttered only by the base
And can for such at once be understood;
But noble platitudes — ah, there's a case
Where the most careful scrutiny is needed
To tell a voice that's genuinely good
From one that's base but merely has succeeded.”
~ W.H. Auden, Base Words Are Uttered Poem

“Acts of injustice done
Between the setting and the rising sun
In history lie like bones, each one.”
~ W.H. Auden

“Be subtle, various, ornamental, clever,
And do not listen to those critics ever
Whose crude provincial gullets crave in books
Plain cooking made still plainer by plain cooks.”
~ W.H. Auden, The Truest Poetry is the Most Feigning

“We are, for all our polish, of little
stature, and, as human lives,
compared with authentic martyrs,
of no account.”
~ W.H. Auden

“Far from his illness
The wolves ran on through the evergreen forests,
The peasant river was untempted by the fashionable quays;
By mourning tongues
The death of the poet was kept from his poems.”
~ W.H. Auden, In Memory of W.B. Yeats

“Will it come like a change in the weather?
Will its greeting be courteous or rough?
Will it alter my life altogether?
O tell me the truth about love.”
~ W.H. Auden, O Tell Me The Truth About Love Poem

“Nothing can be loved too much,
but all things can be loved
in the wrong way.”
~ W.H. Auden, Thank You, Fog

“And maps can really point to places
Where life is evil now:
Nanking. Dachau.”
~ W.H. Auden, In Time of War

“Lovers have lived so long with giants and elves, they won't believe again in their own size.”
~ W.H. Auden, Letters from Iceland

“A dead man who never caused others to die seldom rates a statue.”
~ W.H. Auden

“The element of craftsmanship in poetry is obscured by the fact that all men are taught to speak and most to read and write, while very few men are taught to draw or paint or write music.”
~ W.H. Auden

“People always get what they want. But there is a price for everything. Failures are either those who do not know what they want or are not prepared to pay the price asked them. The price varies from individual to individual. Some get things at bargain-sale prices, others only at famine prices. But it is no use grumbling. Whatever price you are asked, you must pay.”
~ W.H. Auden

“The identification of fantasy is always an attempt to avoid one's own suffering: the identification of art is the sharing in the suffering of another.”
~ W.H. Auden

“Some books are undeservedly forgotten, none are undeservedly remembered”
~ W.H. Auden

“Human "nature" is a nature continually in quest of itself, obliged at every moment to transcend what it was a moment before.”
~ W.H. Auden



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