September 26, 2018

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 –1913) was a Swiss linguist from the early 20th century who is deemed by many as the chief forerunner of the structural linguistics.


Ferdinand de Saussure Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Ferdinand Mongin de Saussure
  • Date of Birth: November 26, 1857
  • Place of Birth: Geneva, Switzerland
  • Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
  • Date of Death: February 22, 1913
  • Cause of Death: NA
  • Place of Death: Vufflens-le-Château, Vaud, Switzerland
  • Place of Burial: NA
  • Ethnicity:  NA
  • Nationality:  Swish
  • Father:  Henri Louis Frédéric de Saussure (1829-1905)
  • Mother: Louise Elisabeth de Pourtalès (1837-1906)
  • Siblings:
  1. Brother - Horace de Saussure (1859-1926)
  2. Sister -  Albertine Adèle de Saussure (1861-1940)
  3. Sister - Elisabeth Théodora de Saussure (1863-1944)
  4. Brother - Léopold de Saussure (1866-1925)
  5. Brother - René de Saussure (1868-1943)
  6. Sister - Jeanne de Saussure (1869-1900)
  7. Brother - Louis Octave de Saussure (1871-1943)
  8. Brother - Maximilien de Saussure (1873-1875)
  • Spouse: Marie de Saussure (Marie Eugénie Faesch) (1867-1950)
  • Children:
  1. Son - Raymond Maximilien Théodore de Saussure (1884-1971)
  2. Son- Jacques Alexandre Benedicte de Saussure (1892-1969)
  3. Son-André Victor de Saussure (1895-1895)
  • Alma Mater: University of Geneva, Leipzig University (PhD, 1880), University of Berlin
  • Ferdinand de Saussure is known for: initiating a new approach to linguistics called the structural linguistics.
  • Ferdinand de Saussure is criticized because: many of his ideas are now proven wrong.
  • Ferdinand de Saussure was influenced by:  Émile Durkheim, August Leskien, Heinrich Zimmer, Hermann Oldenberg
  • Ferdinand de Saussure’s works inspired:  Émile Benveniste, Walter Couvreur, Nikolay Trubetzkoy, Roman Jakobson, Leonard Bloomfield, Eugene Nida , Bernard Bloch , George L. Trager , Rulon S. Wells III, Charles Hockett, and Noam Chomsky .

Quotes

“Speech has both an individual and a social side, and we cannot conceive of one without the other.”
- Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics

Major Works

  • Mémoire sur le systéme primitif des voyelles dans les langues indoeuropéennes (1879)
  • Cours de linguistique générale (1916)

Did You Know?

  • Ferdinand de Saussure was the eldest son born to Henri Louis Frédéric de Saussure and Louise Elisabeth de Pourtalès.
  • His father was a mineralogist, entomologist, and taxonomist.
  • His brother René de Saussure was a linguist and Esperantist.
  • Saussure’s another brother Léopold de Saussure was a scholar of ancient Chinese astronomy.
  • His eldest son Raymond de Saussure was a psychoanalyst.
  • Saussure hardly published any remarkable work during his lifetime except the Mémoire sur le systéme primitif des voyelles dans les langues indoeuropéennes (1879).
  • His most naotable work Cours de linguistique générale was published posthumously in 1916.
  • Cours de linguistique générale contains his lectures about important principles of language description in Geneva between 1907 and 1911 which were collected by his pupils.
  • Saussure is generally considered the founder of modern linguistics for giving three key directions in the study of language, such as the distinction between Synchrony and Diachrony, between langue and parole, between signified and signifier.
  • Saussure is the first linguist to emphasize the importance of viewing language as a living phenomenon.
  • He was awarded his doctorate at Leipzig in 1880.

Media Gallery

Ferdinand de Saussure

September 24, 2018

STEVEN PINKER (B. 1954), A CANADIAN BORN AMERICAN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST, COGNITIVE SCIENTIST, AND LINGUIST.


“According to a recent study of the brains of identical and fraternal twins, differences in the amount of gray matter in the frontal lobes are not only genetically influenced but are significantly correlated with differences in intelligence.” ~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)


“Just as blueprints don't necessarily specify blue buildings, selfish genes don't necessarily specify selfish organisms. As we shall see, sometimes the most selfish thing a gene can do is build a selfless brain. Genes are a play within a play, not the interior monologue of the players.”
~Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997)

“I believe that the rape-is-not-about-sex doctrine will go down in history as an example of extraordinary popular delusions and the madness of crowds. It is preposterous on the face of it, does not deserve its sanctity, is contradicted by a mass of evidence, and is getting in the way of the only morally relevant goal surrounding rape, the effort to stamp it out.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)

“Suppose the reasoning centers of the brain can get their hands on the mechanisms that plop shapes into the array and that read their locations out of it. Those reasoning demons can exploit the geometry of the array as a surrogate for keeping certain logical constraints in mind. Wealth, like location on a line, is transitive: if A is richer than B, and B is richer than C, then A is richer than C. By using location in an image to symbolize wealth, the thinker takes advantage of the transitivity of location built into the array, and does not have to enter it into a chain of deductive steps. The problem becomes a matter of plop down and look up. It is a fine example of how the form of a mental representation determines what is easy or hard to think.”
~ Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997)

“Humans . . . entered the 'cognitive niche.' Remember the definition of intelligence from Chapter 2: using knowledge of how things work to attain goals in the face of obstacles. By learning which manipulations achieve which goals, humans have mastered the art of the surprise attack. They use novel, goal-oriented courses of action to overcome the Maginot Line defenses of other organisms, which can respond only over evolutionary time. The manipulations can be novel because human knowledge is not just couched in concrete instructions like 'how to catch a rabbit.' Humans analyze the world using intuitive theories of objects, forces, paths, places, manners, states, substances, hidden biochemical essences, and, for other animals and people, beliefs and desires. . . . People compose new knowledge and plans by mentally playing out combinatorial interactions among these laws in their mind's eye.”
~ Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997)

“Suppose the reasoning centers of the brain can get their hands on the mechanisms that plop shapes into the array and that read their locations out of it. Those reasoning demons can exploit the geometry of the array as a surrogate for keeping certain logical constraints in mind. Wealth, like location on a line, is transitive: if A is richer than B, and B is richer than C, then A is richer than C. By using location in an image to symbolize wealth, the thinker takes advantage of the transitivity of location built into the array, and does not have to enter it into a chain of deductive steps. The problem becomes a matter of plop down and look up. It is a fine example of how the form of a mental representation determines what is easy or hard to think.”
~ Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997)

“Visual thinking is often driven more strongly by the conceptual knowledge we use to organize our images than by the contents of the images themselves. Chess masters are known for their remarkable memory for the pieces on a chessboard. But it's not because people with photographic memories become chess masters. The masters are no better than beginners when remembering a board of randomly arranged pieces. Their memory captures meaningful relations among the pieces, such as threats and defenses, not just their distribution in space.”
~ Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997)

“The problem with the religious solution [to philosophical problems] was stated by Mencken when he wrote, 'Theology is the effort to explain the unknowable in terms of the not worth knowing.' For anyone with a persistent intellectual curiosity, religious explanations are not worth knowing because they pile equally baffling enigmas on top of the original ones. What gave God a mind, free will, knowledge, certainty about right and wrong? How does he infuse them into a universe that seems to run just fine according to physical laws? How does he get ghostly souls to interact with hard matter? And most perplexing of all, if the world unfolds according to a wise and merciful plan, why does it contain so much suffering? As the Yiddish expression says, If God lived on earth, people would break his windows.”
~ Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997)

“According to a recent study of the brains of identical and fraternal twins, differences in the amount of gray matter in the frontal lobes are not only genetically influenced but are significantly correlated with differences in intelligence.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)

“As people age, they confuse changes in themselves with changes in the world, and changes in the world with moral decline—the illusion of the good old days.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Sense of Style (2014)

“Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language and that language is merely an incidental means of solving specific problems of communication or reflection. The fact of the matter is that the ‘real world’ is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group... We see and hear and otherwise experience very largely as we do because the language habits of our community predispose certain choices of interpretation.”
 ~ Steven Pinker, "Rules of Language," Science (August 2, 1991)

“It's natural to think that living things must be the handiwork of a designer. But it was also natural to think that the sun went around the earth. Overcoming naive impressions to figure out how things really work is one of humanity's highest callings.”
~ Steven Pinker, “Can You Believe in God and Evolution?” Time Magazine, (August 7, 2005)

“Equality is not the empirical claim that all groups of humans are interchangeable; it is the moral principle that individuals should not be judged or constrained by the average properties of their group.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)

“We are all members of the same flawed species. Putting our moral vision into practice means imposing our will on others. The human lust for power and esteem, coupled with its vulnerability to self-deception and self-righteousness, makes that an invitation to a calamity, all the worse when the power is directed at a goal as quixotic as eradicating human self-interest.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature

“Nothing invests life with more meaning than the realisation that every moment of sentience is a precious gift.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature  (2002)

“As technology accumulates and people in more parts of the planet become interdependent, the hatred between them tends to decrease, for the simple reason that you can't kill someone and trade with him too.”
~ Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature  (2002)

September 20, 2018

Steven Pinker (b. 1954) is a Canadian-American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, linguist and popular science author.


Steven Pinker Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Steven Arthur Pinker
  • Date of Birth: September 18, 1954
  • Place of Birth: Montreal, Québec, Canada
  • Zodiac Sign: Virgo
  • Ethnicity: Canadian
  • Nationality: Canadian, American
  • Height: 5 ft 9 in
  • Father: Harry Pinker
  • Mother: Roslyn Pinker née Wiesenfeld
  • Siblings:
  1. Brother: Robert Pinker
  2. Sister: Susan Pinker (b. 1957)
  • Spouse(s):      
  1. Nancy Etcoff  (m. 1980; div. 1992)
  2. Ilavenil Subbiah (m. 1995; div. 2006)
  3. Rebecca Newberger Goldstein (b. 1950;  m. 2007)
  • Children: None, but has two stepdaughters
  1. Stepdaughter - Yael Goldstein Love (b. 1978)
  2. Stepdaughter- Danielle Blau
  • Alma Mater: Dawson College, McGill University, Harvard University
  • Awards:
  1. Troland Award (1993, National Academy of Sciences),
  2. Henry Dale Prize (2004, Royal Institution),
  3. Walter P. Kistler Book Award (2005),
  4. Humanist of the Year award (2006, issued by the AHA),
  5. George Miller Prize (2010, Cognitive Neuroscience Society)
  6. Richard Dawkins Award (2013)
  • Website: www.stevenpinker.com
  • Steven Pinker is known for: his research-centric writings on language, mind and human nature.
  • Steven Pinker is criticized for: offering insufficient empirical proof in support of many of his theories.
  • Steven Pinker was influenced by: Noam Chomsky, Thomas Sowell, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby, Richard Dawkins, Thomas Schelling
  • Steven Pinker’s works inspired: NA

Quotes

“Just as blueprints don't necessarily specify blue buildings, selfish genes don't necessarily specify selfish organisms. As we shall see, sometimes the most selfish thing a gene can do is build a selfless brain. Genes are a play within a play, not the interior monologue of the players.” ― Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works

Major Works

  • The Language Instinct (1994)
  • How the Mind Works (1997)
  • Words and Rules (2000)
  • The Blank Slate (2002)
  • The Stuff of Thought (2007)
  • The Better Angels of Our Nature (2011)
  • The Sense of Style (2014)

Did You Know?

  • Steven Pinker grew up in Montreal’s English-speaking Jewish community.  
  • His grandparents are the immigrants of Poland and Romania.
  • Pinker is the oldest of three children born to Harry and Roslyn Pinker.
  • His father was a lawyer and his mother was a housewife, high school vice principal, and a guidance counselor.
  • Pinker’s younger sister Susan Pinker is a psychologist and writer.
  • Steven Pinker married thrice. He firstly married to Psychologist Nancy Etcoff in 1980 and divorced in 1992. Afterwards, he married the Malaysian-born cognitive psychologist Ilavenil Subbiah in 1995 but again divorced in 2006. At present he is married to the American philosopher and novelist Rebecca Newberger Goldstein.
  • Pinker doesn't have any children from any of his marriages.
  • He has two stepdaughters from his third wife: Yael Goldstein Love, a novelist and Danielle Blau, a poet.
  • Steven Pinker received a bachelor’s degree in psychology in 1976 from McGill University.
  • Pinker earned a doctorate degree in experimental psychology at Harvard in 1979.
  • He undertook research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) for about one year and subsequently became an assistant professor at both Harvard (1980–1981) and Stanford University (1981–1982).
  • Pinker rejoined Harvard University in 2003, this time, however, as a full professor.
  • He was a two-time finalist for the Pulitzer Prize: in 1998 for How the Mind Works and in 2003 for The Blank Slate.
  • In the year 2004, Time Magazine listed him amongst the 100 most influential thinkers and scientists in the world.
  • Pinker is the Chair of the Usage Panel of The American Heritage Dictionary.
  • Currently Pinker lives in Boston and in Truro with Rebecca Goldstein.

Media Gallery

Photos
 
Steven Pinker

Steven Pinker

Steven Pinker

Steven Pinker

Steven Pinker with his present wife Rebecca Newberger Goldstein
Videos



September 19, 2018

B. F. SKINNER (1904 –1990), A LEADING 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, PHILOSOPHER, INVENTOR AND POET.

"It is a surprising fact that those who object most violently to the manipulation of behaviour nevertheless make the most vigorous effort to manipulate minds." ~ B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity


"The real problem is not whether machines think but whether men do."
~ B. F. Skinner, The Technology of Teaching

"It is a mistake to suppose that the whole issue is how to free man. The issue is to improve the way in which he is controlled."
 ~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"The only geniuses produced by the chaos of society are those who do something about it. Chaos breeds geniuses. It offers a man something to be a genius about."
 ~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"No one asks how to motivate a baby. A baby naturally explores everything it can get at, unless restraining forces have already been at work. And this tendency doesn't die out, it's wiped out."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"Going out of style isn't a natural process, but a manipulated change which destroys the beauty of last year's dress in order to make it worthless."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"Some of us learn control, more or less by accident. The rest of us go all our lives not even understanding how it is possible, and blaming our failure on being born the wrong way."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"A person who has been punished is not thereby simply less inclined to behave in a given way; at best, he learns how to avoid punishment."
~ B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity

"The real question is not whether machines think but whether men do. The mystery which surrounds a thinking machine already surrounds a thinking man."
~ B. F. Skinner, Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis

"What is love except another name for the use of positive reinforcement? Or vice versa."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"At this very moment enormous numbers of intelligent men and women of goodwill are trying to build a better world. But problems are born faster than they can be solved."    
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"The amateur doesn't appreciate the need for experimentation. He wants his experts to know."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"Nowadays, everybody fancies himself an expert in government and wants to have a say."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"The final state of affairs may not have been foreseen. Perhaps we are merely reading a plan into the world after the fact."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"In a democracy, there is no check against despotism, because the principle of democracy is supposed to be itself a check. But it guarantees only that the majority will not be despotically ruled."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"Democracy is the spawn of despotism. And like father, like son. Democracy is power and rule. It's not the will of the people, remember; it's the will of the majority."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"Men build society and society builds men."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"A scientist may not be sure of the answer, but he's often sure he can find one. And that's a condition which is clearly not enjoyed by philosophy."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"The tender sentiment of the 'one and only' has less to do with constancy of heart than with singleness of opportunity."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"A fourth-grade reader may be a sixth-grade mathematician. The grade is an administrative device which does violence to the nature of the developmental process."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"We are only just beginning to understand the power of love because we are just beginning to understand the weakness of force and aggression."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"Something doing every minute' may be a gesture of despair--or the height of a battle against boredom."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"But restraint is the only one sort of control, and absence of restraint isn't freedom. It's not control that's lacking when one feels 'free', but the objectionable control of force."
~ B. F. Skinner, Walden Two

"It is a surprising fact that those who object most violently to the manipulation of behaviour nevertheless make the most vigorous effort to manipulate minds."
~ B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity


September 18, 2018

B. F. Skinner (1904 –1990) was an American psychologist, philosopher, inventor and poet.


B. F. Skinner Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Burrhus Frederic Skinner
  • Nickname: Fred
  • Date of Birth: March 20, 1904
  • Place of Birth: Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, USA
  • Zodiac Sign: Pisces
  • Date of Death: August 18, 1990
  • Cause of Death: Leukemia
  • Place of Death: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • Place of Burial: Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • Ethnicity: White
  • Nationality: American
  • Father: William Arthur Skinner (1875- 1950)
  • Mother: Grace Madge Burrhus (1878- 1960)
  • Siblings: Edward Skinner (1907- 1923)
  • Spouse: Yvonne (Eve) Blue Skinner (b.1911- d.1997;  m. 1936-1990, i.e. until Skinner’s death)
  • Children:
  1. Daughter - Julie S. Vargas née Skinner (b. 1938)
  2. Daughter- Deborah Buzan née  Skinner
  • Alma Mater: Hamilton College, Harvard University
  • B. F. Skinner is known for: inventing the operant condition chamber and for his own experimental analysis of behaviour, the philosophy of that science he called radical behaviourism.
  • B. F. Skinner is criticized for: for attempting to apply findings based largely on animal experiments to human behaviour in real-life settings
  • B. F. Skinner was influenced by: Charles Darwin, Ivan Pavlov, Ernst Mach, Jacques Loeb, Edward Thorndike, William James, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Henry David Thoreau
  • B. F. Skinner’s works inspired: NA

Quotes

“The only geniuses produced by the chaos of society are those who do something about it. Chaos breeds geniuses. It offers a man something to be a genius about.”
B.F. Skinner, Walden Two

Major Works

  • The Behavior of Organisms (1938)
  • Walden Two (1948)
  • Science and human behavior (1951)
  • Schedules of Reinforcement (1957)
  • Verbal Behavior (1957)
  • Cumulative Record (1959)
  • The Analysis of Behavior: A Program for Self-Instruction (1961)
  • The Technology of Teaching (1968)
  • Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis (1969)
  • Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971)
  • About Behaviorism (1974)
  • Particulars of My Life (1976)
  • Reflections on Behaviorism and Society (1978)
  • The Shaping of a Behaviorist: Part Two of an Autobiography (1979)
  • Notebooks (1980) (edited by R. Epstein)
  • Skinner for the Classroom (1982) (edited by R. Epstein)

Did You Know?

  • Skinner was the eldest of the two sons born to a lawyer and a housewife.
  • His brother Edward died at the age of sixteen of a cerebral hemorrhage.
  • In early life Skinner became an atheist after the demise of his brother, and after his grandmother's teachings on hell.
  • In 1926 he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in literature from Harvard University where he later received a PhD in 1931.
  • After graduation, he attempted in vain to become a novelist, but was unsuccessful despite encouragement from renowned authors like Robert Frost.
  • B.F. Skinner was a prominent researcher in Harvard University till 1936.
  • In 1945, he became Chair of the Psychology Department at the University of Indiana.
  • John B. Watson's Behaviourism inspired him into graduate study in psychology and to the development of his own version of behaviourism.
  • Ten days before his death, he was conferred the lifetime achievement award by the American Psychological Association.
  • During his Master’s course Skinner in association with Fred Keller invented the "Operant Conditioning" or "Skinner Box” which helped him to envision a field of science based on understanding human behaviour.
  • He published the results of his Operant Conditioning experiments in The Behavior of Organisms (1938).
  • He died at the age of 86 of leukemia on August 18, 1990.

Media Gallery

Photos

B. F. Skinner

B. F. Skinner

B. F. Skinner

B. F. Skinner

B. F. Skinner

Videos



September 4, 2018

Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) is a well-known American linguist, philosopher, political commentator, and cognitive scientist.

Noam Chomsky Quick Facts

Profile

  • Birth Name: Avram Noam Chomsky
  • Date of Birth: December 7, 1928
  • Place of Birth: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  • Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
  • Ethnicity: Ashkenazi Jewish
  • Nationality: American
  • Father: William "Zev" Chomsky (1896-1977)
  • Mother: Elsie Chomsky née Simonofsky (1904–1972)
  • Siblings: 1 younger brother, David Eli Chomsky (b.1933)
  • Spouse(s):
  1. Carol Chomsky née Schatz (m. 1949- until death; b. 1930-d. 2008)
  2. Valeria Wasserman (m. 2014)
  • Children:
  1. Daughter - Aviva Chomsky (b. 1957)
  2. Daughter- Diane Chomsky (b. 1960)
  3. Son- Harry Chomsky (b. 1967)
  • Alma Mater: Oak Lane County Day School, Central High School of Philadelphia, and University of Pennsylvania
  • Noam Chomsky is known for: both his groundbreaking contributions to linguistics and his political activism.
  • Noam Chomsky is criticized for: his controversial theories on human linguistic capacity
  • Noam Chomsky was influenced by: Ferdinand de Saussure, Karl Marx, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, René Descartes, George Orwell, Immanuel Kant, Peter Kropotkin, Adam Smith, Roman Jakobson, Alan Turing, Mikhail Bakunin, Antonio Gramsci, John Dewey, David Hume, Willard Van Orman Quine, Zellig Harris, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Nelson Goodman, Antonie Pannekoek, Leszek Kołakowski, Jaklin Kornfilt, and C. West Churchman
  • Noam Chomsky’s works inspired: NA

Quotes

“Language is a process of free creation; its laws and principles are fixed, but the manner in which the principles of generation are used is free and infinitely varied. Even the interpretation and use of words involves a process of free creation.” - Noam Chomsky

Major Works

  • Syntactic Structures (1957)
  • Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965)
  • The Responsibility of Intellectuals (1967)
  • Language and Mind (1968)
  • The Sound Pattern of English (1968)
  • At war with Asia (1969)
  • American Power and the New Mandarins (1969)
  • Government in the Future (1970)
  • Problems of Knowledge and Freedom (1971)
  • The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1975)
  • Language and Responsibility: Based on Conversations with Mitsou Ronat (1979)
  • The Political Economy of Human Rights (1979)
  • The Fateful Triangle (1983)
  • Knowledge of Language (1986)
  • Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World (1986)
  • The Chomsky Reader (1987)
  • The culture of terrorism (1988)
  • Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988)
  • Necessary Illusions (1989)
  • Media Control (1991)
  • Deterring Democracy (1991)
  • The Year 501 (1992)
  • What Uncle Sam really wants (1992)
  • The Prosperous Few and the Restless Many (1993)
  • Rethinking Camelot (1993)
  • World Orders Old and New (1994)
  • Como Nos Venden La Moto (1995)
  • Powers and prospects (1996)
  • The Essential Chomsky (1998)
  • On Language (1998)
  • The New Military Humanism (1999)
  • Profit over People (1999)
  • Rogue States: The Rule of Force in World Affairs (2000)
  • Chomsky on Mis-Education (2000)
  • A New Generation Draws the Line (2000)
  • Propaganda and the Public Mind (2001)
  • 9-11 (2001)
  • Understanding Power (2002)
  • On Anarchism (2003)
  • Hegemony or Survival (2003)
  • Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (2006)
  • Imperial Ambitions (2005)
  • What We Say Goes (2007)
  • Gaza in Crisis (2010)
  • Hopes and Prospects (2010)
  • How the World Works (2011)
  • Occupy (2012)
  • Making the Future (2012)
  • What Kind of Creatures Are We? (2015)
  • Who Rules the World? (2016)
  • Requiem for the American Dream (2017)

Did You Know?

  • Noam Chomsky is the oldest child born to William Chomsky and Elsie Chomsky.
  • His father was a Jewish emigrant from Kupel, Staro-Konstantinov, Ukraine, whereas his mother was a Jewish emigrant from Babruysk, Belarus.
  • His mother was a noted political activist and his father was a respected professor of Hebrew at Gratz College.
  • While studying at Oak Lane Country Day School Chomsky wrote his first article on the spread of fascism after the Spanish Civil War. During that time he was only ten years old.
  • Chomsky received three university degrees such as, B.A., M.A. and PhD. in linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania.
  • Chomsky got arrested under several occasions for his candid opinions, writings and lectures.
  • Noam Chomsky was greatly influenced by Rudolf Rocker and George Orwell.
  • Chomsky sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics"
  • Chomsky´s groundbreaking work Syntactic Structures (1857) challenged the authenticity of the behaviourist theory.
  • Although his theory of "universal grammar" incorporated new thoughts into language learning theories, it was not universally accepted and received huge criticism.
  • In the year 1955 Chomsky began work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he taught linguistics and philosophy.
  • Noam Chomsky was the National Science Foundation fellow from 1958 to 1959 at Princeton University's Institute for Advanced Study.

Media Gallery

Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky

Chomsky with his first wife Carol Chomsky

Chomsky with his second wife Valeria Wasserman


Random Articles